《Thinking 法斯特 and Slow》是一本由丹Neil勒 卡恩eman小说，LANE ALLEN出版的Hardcover图书，本书定价：288.00元，页数：512，特细心从互联网上整合治理的风流洒脱部分读者的读后感，希望对大家能有支持。
Why You Should be Planning for 2018, Not 2017.
《Thinking 法斯特 and Slow》读后感：先轻松写几笔
Before writing the first chapter of Harry Potter, J. K. Rowling planned for seven years at Hogwarts. Harry Potter is one of the most read books of all-time.
Before creating the first Stars Wars movie in the 1970's, George Lucas planned for at least six films and started at episode four, rather than episode one. Almost 40 years later, the entire world continues to be excited with the release of a new Star Wars film. This would not be possible if Lucas hadn't thoughtfully and largely planned ahead.
Part 1: The Importance of Principles
Your values are what you consider important, literally what you “value.”
All successful people operate by principles that help them be successful.
Adopting pre-packaged principles without much thought exposes you to the risk of inconsistency with your true values.
Your principles will determine your standards of behavior.
那应该是自家读的第二本激情学相关的书。固然The Flip Side算作第一本的话。但相比，那第二本书的难度越来越大。单词非常少，心绪学名词和心境学现象相当多，只读二次真心记不住多少。必要返工再读，因为里面有相当多东西对自个儿生存很有援助，对全人类和社会的认知也是很有启迪的。
The principle is simple: Don't just plant a tree, plant an orchard.
Part 2: My Most Fundamental Life Principles
Time is like a river that will take you forward into encounters with reality that will require you to make decisions. You can’t stop the movement down this river, and you can’t avoid the encounters. You can only approach these encounters in the best way possible. (That is what this part is all about.)
In order to be motivated, I needed to work for what I wanted, not for what other people wanted me to do. And in order to be successful, I needed to figure out for myself how to get what I wanted, not remember the facts I was being told to remember.
The consensus is often wrong, so I have to be an independent thinker. To make any money, you have to be right when they’re wrong.
I want you to work for yourself, to come up with independent opinions, to stress-test them, to be wary about being overconfident, and to reflect on the consequences of your decisions and constantly improve.
1) working for what I wanted, not for what others wanted me to do; 2) coming up with the best independent opinions I could muster to move toward my goals; 3) stresstesting my opinions by having the smartest people I could find challenge them so I could find out where I was wrong; 4) being wary about overconfidence, and good at not knowing; and 5) wrestling with reality, experiencing the results of my decisions, and reflecting on what I did to produce them so that I could improve.
I learned that finding out what is true, regardless of what that is, including all the stuff most people think is bad.
I learned that there is nothing to fear from truth.
I learned that being truthful was an extension of my freedom to be me.
I learned that everyone makes mistakes and has weaknesses and that one of the most important things that differentiates people is their approach to handling them.
In short, I learned that being totally truthful, especially about mistakes and weaknesses, led to a rapid rate of improvement and movement toward what I wanted.
While most others seem to believe that learning what we are taught is the path to success, I believe that figuring out for yourself what you want and how to get it is a better path.
While most others seem to believe that having answers is better than having questions, I believe that having questions is better than having answers because it leads to more learning.
While most others seem to believe that mistakes are bad things, I believe mistakes are good things because I believe that most learning comes via making mistakes and reflecting on them.
While most others seem to believe that finding out about one’s weaknesses is a bad thing, I believe that it is a good thing because it is the first step toward finding out what to do about them and not letting them stand in your way.
While most others seem to believe that pain is bad, I believe that pain is required to become stronger.
《Thinking 法斯特 and Slow》读后感：读了未来上学时学数学犯的失实就安然了
How different might Harry Potter have been if Rowling started the book without any intentions or plans beyond the first book? It may have just been a book about a boy who went to school and killed a bad guy. Perhaps, at the conclusion of that story, Rowling might or might not have decided to write a sequel.
My Most Fundamental Principles
my most fundamental principle: Truth — more precisely, an accurate understanding of reality — is the essential foundation for producing good outcomes.
This perspective gives me a non-traditional sense of good and bad: “good,” to me, means operating consistently with the natural laws, while “bad” means operating inconsistently with these laws.
I believe that evolution, which is the natural movement toward better adaptation, is the greatest single force in the universe, and that it is good.
I believe that the desire to evolve, i.e., to get better, is probably humanity’s most pervasive driving force.
It is natural for us to seek other things or to seek to make the things we have better.
In other words, the sequence of 1) seeking new things (goals); 2) working and learning in the process of pursuing these goals; 3) obtaining these goals; and 4) then doing this over and over again is the personal evolutionary process that fulfills most of us and moves society forward.
I believe that pursuing self-interest in harmony with the laws of the universe and contributing to evolution is universally rewarded.
Self-interest and society’s interests are generally symbiotic: more than anything else, it is pursuit of selfinterest that motivates people to push themselves to do the difficult things that benefit them and that contribute to society. In return, society rewards those who give it what it wants. That is why how much money people have earned is a rough measure of how much they gave society what it wanted—NOT how much they desired to make money.
Most of us are born with attributes that both help us and hurt us, depending on their applications, and the more extreme the attribute, the more extreme the potential good and bad outcomes these attributes are likely to produce.
In nature everything was made for a purpose, and so too were these different ways of thinking.
The most importantly to understand one’s own values and abilities—and then to find the right fits.
The most important quality that differentiates successful people from unsuccessful people is our capacity to learn and adapt to these things.
As a result of them, most people don’t like reflecting on their weaknesses even though recognizing them is an essential step toward preventing them from causing them problems. Most people especially dislike others exploring their weaknesses because it makes them feel attacked, which produces fight or flight reactions.
It is tragic when people let ego barriers lead them to experience bad outcomes.
读了今后上学时学数学犯的失实就心静了，还特意做了chapter 16 cab expriments的贝叶斯推测： 复习了刹那间高级中学数学
Yet, by "beginning with the end in mind," Rowling was able to direct and position the first book much differently. The first book, although amazing in itself, was a means to an end, clearly leading the reader to the next book.
The Personal Evolutionary Process
The quality of our lives depends on the quality of the decisions we make.
We aren’t born with the ability to make good decisions; we learn it.
Reality Dreams Determination = A Successful Life
What is success? I believe that it is nothing more than getting what you want—and that it is up to you to decide what that is for you.
What is essential is that you are clear about what you want and that you figure out how to get it.
Personally, I believe that personal evolution is both the greatest accomplishment and the greatest reward.
Also, for most people happiness is much more determined by how things turn out relative to their expectations rather than the absolute level of their conditions.
This basic principle suggests that you can follow one of two paths to happiness: 1) have high expectations and strive to exceed them, or 2) lower your expectations so that they are at or below your conditions. Most of us choose the first path, which means that to be happy we have to keep evolving.
Another principle to keep in mind is that people need meaningful work and meaningful relationships in order to be fulfilled.
《Thinking 法斯特 and Slow》读后感：为何立异是落前者的权利？
Not only that, but by having a long-term objective, Rowling was able to create a much bigger story. She was able to foreshadow to things the reader wouldn't learn about for sometimes several years!
Your Most Important Choices
- The quality of our lives depends on the quality of the decisions we make.
It is a fundamental law of nature that to evolve one has to push one’s limits, which is painful, in order to gain strength—whether it’s in the form of lifting weights, facing problems head-on, or in any other way.
At the same time, nature made the process of getting stronger require us to push our limits. Gaining strength is the adaptation process of the body and the mind to encountering one’s limits, which is painful. In other words, both pain and strength typically result from encountering one’s barriers. When we encounter pain, we are at an important juncture in our decisionmaking process.
Most learning comes from making mistakes, reflecting on the causes of the mistakes, and learning what to do differently in the future. Believe it or not, you are lucky to feel the pain if you approach it correctly, because it will signal that you need to find solutions and to progress.
Pain Reflection = Progress
- People who know that understanding what is real is the first step toward optimally dealing with it make better decisions.
People who worry about looking good typically hide what they don’t know and hide their weaknesses, so they never learn how to properly deal with them and these weaknesses remain impediments in the future.
People who are interested in making the best possible decisions rarely are confident that they have the best possible answers.
People who overweigh the first-order consequences of their decisions and ignore the effects that the second- and subsequent-order consequences will have on their goals rarely reach their goals.
People who choose what they really want, and avoid the temptations and get over the pains that drive them away from what they really want, are much more likely to have successful lives.
Blaming bad outcomes on anyone or anything other than one’s self is essentially wishing that reality is different than it is, which is silly. And it is subversive because it diverts one’s attention away from mustering up the personal strength and other qualities that are required to produce the best possible outcomes.
Successful people understand that bad things come at everyone and that it is their responsibility to make their lives what they want them to be by successfully dealing with whatever challenges they face.
In summary, I believe that you can probably get what you want out of life if you can suspend your ego and take a no-excuses approach to achieving your goals with open-mindedness, determination, and courage, especially if you rely on the help of people who are strong in areas that you are weak.
If I had to pick just one quality that those who make the right choices have, it is character. Character is the ability to get one’s self to do the difficult things that produce the desired results.
However, because of the law of nature that pushing your boundaries will make you stronger, which will lead to improved results that will motivate you, the more you operate in your “stretch zone,” the more you adapt and the less character it takes to operate at the higher level of performance.
In summary, I don’t believe that limited abilities are an insurmountable barrier to achieving your goals, if you do the other things right.
But she planted those seeds early and thoughtfully, and as a result, each book was a continuation of the next, rather than several disconnected and random stories.
Your Two Yous and Your Machine
Those who are most successful are capable of “higher level thinking”.
If your outcomes are inconsistent with your goals (e.g., if you are having problems), you need to modify your “machine,” which means that you either have to modify your design/culture or modify your people.
I call it “higher level thinking” because your perspective is of one who is looking down on at your machine and yourself objectively.
Think of it as though there are two yous—you as the designer and overseer of the plan to achieve your goals (let’s call that one you(1)) and you as one of the participants in pursuing that mission (which we will call you(2)). You(2) are a resource that you(1) have to get what you(1) want, but by no means your only resource. To be successful you(1) have to be objective about you(2).
If you(1) see that you(2) are not capable of doing something, it is only sensible for you(1) to have someone else do it. In other words, you(1) should look down on you(2) and all the other resources at your(1) disposal and create a “machine” to achieve your(1) goals, remembering that you(1) don’t necessarily need to do anything other than to design and manage the machine to get what you(1) want. If you(1) find that you(2) can’t do something well fire yourself(2) and get a good replacement! You shouldn’t be upset that you found out that you(2) are bad at that—you(1) should be happy because you(1) have improved your(1) chances of getting what you(1) want. If you(1) are disappointed because you(2) can’t be the best person to do everything, you(1) are terribly naïve because nobody can do everything well.
The biggest mistake most people make is to not see themselves and others objectively. If they could just get around this, they could live up to their potentials.
读完本书之后，或者能够那样重复对待那几个好玩的事，作为B船，已经落伍了，所以使用take risk的战术，而作为A船，或然是对友好的技艺太自信，只怕是恐怖危害，所以选取了risk averse，诱致最终的挫败。
Similarly, consider how different Star Wars would have been had Lucas created one film, without planning what would come next, or before! Vader may have just been "the bad guy," not Luke's father.
My 5-Step Process to Getting What You40 Want Out of Life
“The Process” consists of five distinct steps: a) Have clear goals. b) Identify and don’t tolerate the problems that stand in the way of achieving your goals. c) Accurately diagnose these problems. d) Design plans that explicitly lay out tasks that will get you around your problems and on to your goals. e) Implement these plans—i.e., do these tasks.
A few general points about the process: a) You must approach these as distinct steps rather than blur them together. b) Each of these five steps requires different talents and disciplines. c) It is essential to approach this process in a very clear-headed, rational way rather than emotionally.
Treat your life like a game or a martial art. Your mission is to figure out how to get around your challenges to get to your goals. In the process of playing the game or practicing this martial art, you will become more skilled. As you get better, you will progress to ever-higher levels of the game that will require—and teach you—greater skills.
However, the big and really great news is that you don’t need to have all of these skills to succeed! You just have to 1) know they are needed; 2) know you don’t have some of them; and 3) figure out how to get them (i.e., either learn them or work with others who have them).
By and large, life will give you what you deserve and it doesn’t give a damn what you “like.” So it is up to you to take full responsibility to connect what you want with what you need to do to get it, and then to do those things—which often are difficult but produce good results—so that you’ll then deserve to get what you want.
The first-order consequences of escaping life’s challenges may seem pleasurable in the moment, but the secondand third-order consequences of this approach are your life and, over time, will be painful.
However, you will never handle them all well: mistakes are inevitable, and it’s important to recognize and accept this fact of life. The good news, as I have mentioned, is that most learning comes through making mistakes—so there is no end to learning how to play the game better. You will have an enormous number of decisions to make, so no matter how many mistakes you make, there will be plenty of opportunities to build a track record of success. (That’s basically the whole concept.)
Very Few People Live like This
The 5 Steps Close-Up
You are the writer of your own narrative. Yet, how often do you plan each year based on what you intend to do during the next year, or the one after that?
1) Setting Goals
You can have virtually anything you want, but you can’t have everything you want.
You have to reject having some things you want in order to get other things you want more.
It doesn’t really matter if some things are unavailable to you, because the selection of what IS available is so great.
To achieve your goals you have to prioritize, and that includes rejecting good alternatives (so that you have the time and resources to pursue even better ones—time being probably your greatest limiting factor, though, through leverage, you can substantially reduce time’s constraints).
It is important not to confuse “goals” and “desires.” It is important not to confuse “goals” and “desires.” In terms of the consequences they produce, goals are good and desires are bad.
Failing to make the distinction between goals and desires will lead you in the wrong direction, because you will be inclined to pursue things you want that will undermine your ability to get things you want more. In short, you can pursue anything you desire—just make sure that you know the consequences of what you are doing.
Another common reason people fail at this stage is that they lose sight of their goals, getting caught up in day-to-day tasks.
Avoid setting goals based on what you think you can achieve.
Don’t rule out a goal due to a superficial assessment of its attainability.
You can ask the people around you for help—or even ask them to do the things you don’t do well.
In other words, there is almost no reason not to succeed if you take the attitude of 1) total flexibility—good answers can come from anyone or anywhere (and in fact, as I have mentioned, there are far more good answers “out there” than there are in you) and 2) total accountability: regardless of where the good answers come from, it’s your job to find them.
This no-excuses approach helps me do whatever it takes to get whatever I want most.
80. Achieving your goals isn’t just about moving forward.
Your goal is always to make the best possible choices, knowing that you will be rewarded if you do.
Generally speaking, goal-setting is best done by those who are good at big-picture conceptual thinking, synthesizing, visualizing, and prioritizing. But whatever your strengths and weaknesses are, don’t forget the big and really great news here: it is not essential that you have all of these qualities yourself, because you can supplement them with the help of others.
In summary, in order to get what you want, the first step is to really know what you want, without confusing goals with desires, and without limiting yourself because of some imagined impediments that you haven’t thoroughly analyzed.
What if, like Rowling, you were living this year based on what you intend to do in 1, 3, and 5 years from now?
2) Identifying and Not Tolerating Problems
84. Most problems are potential improvements screaming at you.
The more painful the problem, the louder it is screaming.In order to be successful, you have to 1) perceive problems and 2) not tolerate them.
It is essential to bring problems to the surface. Most people don’t like to do this. But most successful people know that they have to do this. The most common reasons people don’t successfully identify their problems are generally rooted either in a lack of will or in a lack of talent or skill.
Push through the pain of facing your problems, knowing you will end up in a much better place.
When identifying problems, it is important to remain centered and logical.
Remember that the pains you are feeling are “growing pains” that will test your character and reward you if you push through them. Try to look at your problems as a detached observer would. Remember that identifying problems is like finding gems embedded in puzzles; if you solve the puzzles you will get the gems that will make your life much better. Doing this continuously will lead to your rapid evolution. So, if you’re logical, you really should get excited about finding problems because identifying them will bring you closer to your goals.
90. Be very precise in specifying your problems.
91. Don’t confuse problems with causes.
92. Once you identify your problems, you must not tolerate them.
If you are motivated, you can succeed even if you don’t have the abilities (i.e., talents and skills) because you can get the help from others. But if you’re not motivated to succeed, if you don’t have the will to succeed, the situation is hopeless.
People who are good at this step—identifying and not tolerating problems—tend to have strong abilities to perceive and synthesize a clear and accurate picture, as well as demonstrate a fierce intolerance of badness (regardless of the severity).
It's all in the set up.
3) Diagnosing the Problems
95. You will be much more effective if you focus on diagnosis and design rather than jumping to solutions.
96. You must be calm and logical.
97. You must get at the root causes.
Root causes, like principles, are things that manifest themselves over and over again as the deep-seated reasons behind the actions that cause problems.
Proximate causes typically are the actions or lack of actions that lead to problems. Proximate causes are typically described via verbs. Root causes are typically described with adjectives, usually characteristics about what the person is like that lead them to an action or an inaction.
Identifying the real root causes of your problems is essential because you can eliminate your problems only by removing their root causes. In other words, you must understand, accept, and successfully deal with reality in order to move toward your goals.
Recognizing and learning from one’s mistakes and the mistakes of others who affect outcomes is critical to eliminating problems.
More than anything else, what differentiates people who live up to their potential from those who don’t is a willingness to look at themselves and others objectively.
I call the pain that comes from looking at yourself and others objectively “growing pains,” because it is the pain that accompanies personal growth. No pain, no gain.
Pain Reflection = Progress
To be successful, you must be willing to look at your own behavior and the behavior of others as possible causes of problems.
The most important qualities for successfully diagnosing problems are logic, the ability to see multiple possibilities, and the willingness to touch people’s nerves to overcome the ego barriers that stand in the way of truth.
Goals are means, not ends.
4) Designing the Plan (Determining the Solutions)
- Most of the movement toward your goals comes from designing how to remove the root causes of your problems. Problems are great because they are very specific impediments, so you know that you will move forward if you can identify and eliminate their root causes.
108. Creating a design is like writing a movie script in that you visualize who will do what through time in order to achieve the goal.
Then write down the plan so you don’t lose sight of it, and include who needs to do what and when. The list of tasks falls out from this story (i.e., the plan), but they are not the same. The story, or plan, is what connects your goals to the tasks. For you to succeed, you must not lose sight of the goals or the story while focusing on the tasks; you must constantly refer back and forth.
When designing your plan, think about the timelines of various interconnected tasks. Sketch them out loosely and then refine them with the specific tasks. This is an iterative process, alternating between sketching out your broad steps (e.g., hire great people) and filling these in with more specific tasks with estimated timelines (e.g., in the next two weeks choose the headhunters to find the great people) that will have implications (e.g., costs, time, etc.). These will lead you to modify your design sketch until the design and tasks work well together. Being as specific as possible (e.g., specifying who will do what and when) allows you to visualize how the design will work at both a big-picture level and in detail. It will also give you and others the to-do lists and target dates that will help direct you.
People successful with this stage have an ability to visualize and a practical understanding of how things really work. Remember, you don’t have to possess all these qualities if you have someone to help you with the ones you are missing.
Everything you do is positioning. Are you positioning yourself to do AMAZING things in 1, 3, or 5 years from now?
112. Remember: Designing precedes doing!
《Thinking Fast and Slow》读后感：以管窥天
I can already hear your mental wheels spinning.
5) Doing the Tasks
I believe the importance of good work habits is vastly underrated.
It is critical to know each day what you need to do and have the discipline to do it.
People who are good at this stage can reliably execute a plan. They tend to be self-disciplined and proactive rather than reactive to the blizzard of daily tasks that can divert them from execution. They are results-oriented: they love to push themselves over the finish line to achieve the goal.
As with the other steps, if you aren’t good at this step, get help. There are many successful, creative people who are good at the other steps but who would have failed because they aren’t good at execution. But they succeeded nonetheless because of great symbiotic relationships with highly reliable task-doers.
But you can't plan for the future! The real world isn't Hogwarts!
The Relationships between These Steps
Goals are the sole purpose of designs and tasks.
To remember the connections between the tasks and the goals that they are meant to achieve, you just have to ask, “Why?” It is good to connect tasks to goals this way (with the “Why?”), because losing sight of the connections will prevent you from succeeding.
Again, this 5-Step Process is iterative. This means that after completing one of the steps you will probably have acquired relevant information that leads you to modify the other steps.
Obviously, the world is changing fast. You can't plan for everything. Hence, Tony Robbins has said, "Stay committed to your decisions, but stay flexible in your approach."
Weaknesses Don’t Matter if You Find Solutions
To repeat, the best advice I can give you is to ask yourself what you want, then ask ‘what is true,’ and then ask yourself ‘what should be done about it.’ If you honestly ask and answer these questions you will move much faster towards what you want to get out of life than if you don’t!
Most importantly, ask yourself what is your biggest weakness that stands in the way of what you want.
When you encounter that pain, try to remember that you can get what you want out of life if you can open-mindedly reflect, with the help of others, on what is standing in your way and then deal with it.
Being weak at any one of these steps is not a problem if you understand what you are weak at and successfully compensate for that weakness by seeking help.
It is easy to find out what weaknesses are standing in your way by 1) identifying which steps you are failing at and 2) getting the feedback of people who are successful at doing what you are having problems with.
In a nutshell, my 5-Step process for achieving what you want is: Values -> 1) Goals -> 2) Problems -> 3) Diagnoses -> 4) Designs -> 5) Tasks
Your values determine what you want, i.e., your goals. In trying to achieve your goals, you will encounter problems that have to be diagnosed. Only after determining the real root causes of these problems can you design a plan to get around them. Once you have a good plan, you have to muster the self-discipline to do what is required to make the plan succeed. Note that this process starts with your values, but it requires that you succeed at all five steps. While these steps require different abilities, you don’t have to be good at all of them. If you aren’t good at all of them (which is true for almost everyone), you need to know what you are bad at and how to compensate for your weaknesses. This requires you to put your ego aside, objectively reflect on your strengths and weaknesses, and seek the help from others.
Life is like a game where you seek to overcome the obstacles that stand in the way of achieving your goals;
You get better at this game through practice;
The game consists of a series of choices that have consequences;
You can’t stop the problems and choices from coming at you, so it’s better to learn how to deal with them;
You have the freedom to make whatever choices you want, though it’s best to be mindful of their consequences;
The pain of problems is a call to find solutions rather than a reason for unhappiness and inaction, so it’s silly, pointless, and harmful to be upset at the problems and choices that come at you (though it’s understandable);
We all evolve at different paces, and it’s up to you to decide the pace at which you want to evolve;
The process goes better if you are as accurate as possible in all respects, including assessing your strengths and weaknesses and adapting to them.
And that's the difference. Most people don't make committed decisions, which is why only 8% of people go on to accomplish their New Years Resolutions.
Part 3: My Management Principles
- If the group’s values and principles are clear, their way of being (i.e., their culture) will permeate everything they do. It will drive how the people in the group set goals, identify problems, diagnose problems, design solutions and make sure that these designs are implemented.
While having a clearly conveyed great culture is important, that’s only half of the magic formula. The other half is having great people—i.e., people who have the values, abilities, skills that fit the organization’s culture.
I believe that to have a great company you have to make two things great —the culture and the people.
The more frequently and effectively those in the machine go through this process, the more rapidly they and the machine will evolve.
I want Bridgewater to be a company in which people collectively…1) work for what they want and not for what others want of them. 2) come up with the best independent opinions they can muster to move toward their goals,…3) stress-test their opinions by having the smartest people they can find to challenge them so they can find out where they are wrong, …4) are wary about overconfidence, and good at not knowing …5) wrestle with reality, experiencing the results of their decisions, and reflecting on what they did to produce them so that they can improve.
- First, it is logical that the cause-effect relationships are such that being this way produces good results. Second, this theory has been tested over the last 40 years and has worked.
In an interview between John Assaraf and Lewis Howes, Assaraf shared what his first mentor taught him about goal setting.
《Thinking 法斯特 and Slow》读后感：一点干货
After setting his goals in several areas of his life (e.g., health, spirituality, finances, relationships, service, etc.), and for 1, 3, 5, and 25 years out, Assaraf's mentor asked him, "Are you interested in achieving these goals, or are you committed?" to which Assaraf responded, "What's the difference?"
His mentor responded:
冷温热三杯水原理：分别把双手放入冷水和沸水中，然后还要放入热水中，左左边手冷热感分化，固然是放入同样温度的热水中。那就是参考值reference point的效应。类比到法学: Outcomes that are better than reference points are gains. Below the reference points they are losses. Bernoulli和Fechnsr感到在规定值和预期平均值相等的气象下是因为对数函数的涉及，所以100%明确收益对应的心境值比预料恐怕受益的心绪值大，表明大家不情愿孤注一掷。
"If you're interested, you come up with stories, excuses, reasons, and
circumstances about why you can't or why you won't. If you're committed,
those go out the window. You just do whatever it takes."
Clearly, Assaraf's life probably isn't exactly how he planned it to be when he set those goals in 1982 at the age of 19. However, I'm confident those goals propelled him to where he is today.
He was playing and planning a much bigger game than most people and writing a much different story.
The Science Doesn't Lie
《Thinking 法斯特 and Slow》读后感：学着慢酌量
If psychological science has found anything in the past 30 years, it's that people with high self-efficacy and an internal locus of control radically outperform others.
Self-efficacy = your belief in your own ability to achieve your goals. Think "confidence."
Internal locus of control = a belief that you, not external circumstances, determine the outcomes of your life.
External locus of control = a belief that factors outside of you determine the outcomes of your life.
The majority of the population have low self-efficacy and an external locus of control. According to several research studies, people with these two traits:
Don't set challenging goals
Don't take on leadership roles
Experience learned helplessness
Have a higher chance of depression and anxiety
Have a pessimistic view of the future
Have low job satisfaction and low job performance
Have low life satisfaction
Have low engagement in both work and life
Have greater health problems
Experience more stress
The list goes on. You get the point.
Reverse everything on that list for people with high self-efficacy and an internal locus of control.
The Greatest Lie Postulated Today
Is the world changing fast? Yes.
Are factors outside of your control unpredictable? Yes.
Do you have little control over the outcomes of your own life? No! I don't care who the President of the United States is. You can prosper or perish in either case, and it's the not the President who decides that.
But herein lies the greatest lie being pushed today: That you are not in control of what happens in your own life!
Billionaire Peter Thiel has said:
"Indefinite attitudes to the future explain what's most dysfunctional in
our world today. Process trumps substance: when people lack concrete
plans to carry out, they use formal rules to assemble a portfolio of
various options. This describes Americans today. In middle school, we're
encouraged to start hoarding "extracurricular activities." In high
school, ambitious students compete even harder to appear omnicompetent.
By the time a student gets to college, he's spent a decade curating a
bewilderingly diverse résumé to prepare for a completely unknowable
future. Come what may, he's ready - for nothing in particular."
What would happen if you hired a construction manager to build your house and they said, "Don't bother giving us a blueprint of the design you want. After all, you can't really plan for anything. So I'm not exactly sure how your house will turn out."
When you build a house, you have a plan. You follow the plan and you follow principles, such as mathematical laws. Thus, you're not surprised by the outcome. In other words, you don't expect crooked walls that don't line up. You don't expect to have the bathroom where you intended the kitchen.
Dr. Stephen R. Covey has taught, "Mental creation always precedes physical creation."
Very Few People Desire the Responsibility
It's easy to believe the idea that you are not responsible for what happens to you.
It's much harder to own up to the fact that you are making choices every instant that determine your future.
Even this very moment, you're reading this article.
Who is responsible for that?
Did you not click on the link that led you to this article?
Did you have no control over the matter?
《Thinking 法斯特 and Slow》读后感：你猜卡恩eman的老婆是何人？
The moment you realize you have complete responsibility for every aspect of your life is the exact moment you are completely FREE! (see the movie: The Adjustment Bureau)
If someone or something outside of you is responsible for your health, you won't do everything in your power to be healthy.
从现年年终起就被这本Thinking fast and slow不许时刷屏，大致二月份的时候找了本斯洛伐克共和国语电子版的翻了翻，不知道是由于制版难点可能怎么的，始终看不进去。几周前从体育场所借到了纸版，结果恐怕看了半本就还回到了，那本书的视角和例子都很有趣，科学普及性很强，但是本身个人一而再一连认为过于烦琐，用过多的效能来讲授各类决策中的非理性现象，描述过于细化，好像从没进一层客观的框架整合，而书中提及的两套系统（system 1&2）又过分普适，引致自个儿直接在想那五个系统的证伪的例证，结果吴下阿蒙得未有想出去，所甚于今对这本书的眼光照旧念念不要忘记。不是认为小编是错的，而是以为小编描述了如此多的光景，也解释了干吗，不过毕竟作者却以为笔者什么都未曾说。但是，因为自身是生存在几天前以那时期，人并不是理性的理念已经路人皆知，水滴石穿早就燎原了呢。即使生活在上世纪八十时期，定会认为我不止切中“理性人”借使的显要，更是引发了万众的眼珠子呀。那也就简单了然为何作者（Daniel卡恩eman）的切磋拿到了贰零零叁年的诺Bell经济学奖（补充知识：合营者Amos Tversky于一九九九年因某某血牙红素瘤与世长辞没到手诺奖，然而卡恩eman在获得奖项感言上也说了军功章有Tversky50%）。
If someone of something outside of you is responsible for you and yours, you won't do everything in your power to provide for your family.
Y803上周的文献无独有偶读到了Tversky & 卡恩eman一九七七年的science文章，加上老师讲了讲学术理论背景，作者到底领会了温馨纠葛的地点，因而把笔记简单列出来，也和读过本书的门阀大吃大喝一下。
If someone or something outside of you is responsible for your future, then like most people, you will be the product of external circumstances.
有梗概多个趋势只怕说理论档期的顺序来分解人类的论断和决定（Judgment and decision making），上边列出的是基本假如和见地：
Jim Rohn has said, "Let others lead small lives, but not you. Let others argue over small things, but not you. Let others cry over small hurts, but not you. Let others leave their future in someone else's hands, but not you."
Normative Theories: Focus on how we OUGHT TO behave and how idealized rational and super intelligent people should make judgment and decisions, which should be always internally consistent. For example: game theory, probability theory and utility theory.
The 3 R's of Choice
Deｓｃｒｉｐｔive Theories: How judgment and decision ARE MADE.
"When I look into the future, it's so bright it burns my eyes." - Oprah Winfrey
Preｓｃｒｉｐｔive Theories: What can real person do to make BETTER judgment and decisions.
读书笔记，Slow经典读后感10篇。There are three components to having the power to make choices:
透过能够回去本人对本书的感触了，Kahneman & Tversky的研究注重针对于第二个层次，描述决策进程，极其是寻觅决策中的错觉（illusions），就像是我们在感知觉中看见的各个错觉相通，它们存在并不是说大家的种类不可收拾了，只是说我们的系统不时会出错。就如卡恩eman & Tversky在他们小说开端就提到的：“This article shows that people rely on a limited number of heuristic principles which reduce the complex tasks of asessing probabilities and predicting values to simpler judgmental operations. In general, these heuristics are quite usefu, bue someimes they lead to severe and systematic errors.” 实际上，卡恩eman & Tversky切磋中的例子和题设都不是随意从生活中抽取来的，他们试了各类组合，找到非常能唤起大家决定错觉的百般作为最后的施行质感，举例他们有些实验的难点是这么的：“戴尔tain town is served by two hospitals. In the larger hospital about 45 babies are born each day, and in the smaller hospital about 15 babies are born each day. As you know, about 50 percent of all babies are boys. However, the exact percentage varies from day to day. Sometimes it may be hight than 50 percent, sometimes lower. For a period of 1 year, each hospital recorded the days on which more than 60 percent of the babies born were boys. Which hospital do you think recorded more such days？ A. the larger hospital B. the smaller hospital C. About the same (that is, within 5 percent of each otherState of Qatar” 精确答案是A，可是实际有半数的被试选了C（即使小编精通嫌疑真的有那么几个人以为是豆蔻梢头致的呢？那一个正是题外话了）。假设大家把伍分叁以此原则改成实际上数字，大家的抉择只怕会变动依然使全部结果变好，可是正像在此以前说的，那是实验者精心设计出的，决策“错觉”，你就认栽吧！所以那样风姿洒脱解释，小编要好也就不那么纠结于书中那么多职能解释那么多景况了，就好像视错觉也是玲琅满目标，从错觉的名字都能看出来。
The right to choice
The responsibility to choose
永利集团304.com ，The results of choice
If you don't believe you have the ability to make choices, you have been deceived. You make choices every single day. You're making a choice right now.
我们都清楚后面包车型客车学界趋向于钻研第二个样子：理性的行事。因而，卡恩eman & Tversky系统的发表非理性决策的劳作真正是至极主要的。现在自身繁多不从目标上质疑了，可是第七个档案的次序也回复了本人前面包车型客车感觉。第四个档案的次序应该是那几个总问“so what”难点的人所倾慕的。可是当前，无论前四个档次怎么，步入第多个档期的顺序——让咱们感觉那多少个决策中的bug不再那么骇人据悉——鲜有吧。
When you take responsibility for your choices, you realize there is no neutral ground. Every decision you make has inherent meaning and consequence. Every decision you make also reflects what you truly believe, far louder than any words you speak. Thus, what you do with your time actually does matter. Who you spend your time with does matter. Everything you do matters when you take responsibility.
上边来介绍一个尘直接和卡恩eman & Tversky对着干的吗：Gerd Gigerenzer，那位正是死活都扶助rationality的呢，读文献前完全不打听景况，就映重点帘作者单位是：MaxPlanck Institue for Psychology Research，以为这几个单位也是个神同样的留存呢，料想作者料定亦不是怎么样无声无臭呀，查了下，再度印证作者的一孔之见和底蕴知识柔弱啊。那位光是科学普及书就写了好几本销路广的哟：simple heuristics that make us smart；calculated risks；Gut Feelings。一本没读过，然而后两本都闻讯过，最后一本更是见到前边友邻说“和卡恩eman的意见截然反着，读着很费事”。未来转手把具备此前零碎存款和储蓄的记得都连在一同了，就好像周六要播出的《云图》的痛感雷同。两者的争持除了前边提到的首先个档期的顺序和第贰个档次外，还会有对此Frequencist and Bayesian/personal 西奥ry的争持。后边一个以为：“probability is a measure of relative frequencies of particulat event. Unless probability statement based on such proportion is meaningless, it should not be none.” 而后人则看好：“probablity judgment can be cased on any of one's believed knowledge including knowlegde about frequencies or about a set of logivcal possibilities as well as other knowledge.” 其实看来看去笔者亦非极度清楚，但是可知Gigerenzer主见前面一个，而Kahneman & Tversky匡助后面一个。这么些自身也要再读读文献才有越来越的发言权呀。先不研讨了。
Lastly, results. Every decision has a consequence. Said Dr. Stephen R. Covey, "We control our actions, but the consequences that flow from those actions are controlled by principles."
最后嘲讽一下知识界争吵呀，这几篇小说读得那二个逗正是因为双方在篇章中言而有信直白的交手简直太风趣了。例如，卡恩eman & Tversky说：“this is a fact of life that targets of criticism should learn to expect, even if they do not enjoy it. in some exceptional cases, however, the fidelity of the presentation is so low that readers may be misled about the real issues under discussion. In oue view, Gigerenzer's critique of the hueristics and biases preogram is one of these cases......” 当中国音野趣还要各位自个儿去读文献体会了。
Every decision (and indecision!) has a consequence. Withholding the words, "I love you," to a child or spouse could be more detrimental than you imagine. Conversely, doing small and simple things, like making someone feel special or smiling at a stranger could change their whole day, and whole life!
最终的最终：你猜卡恩eman的太太是何人？在卡恩eman & Tversky的Science作品1126页右下角的那一个段落最早提起趋中回归时说“in the normal corse of life, one encounters many instances of regression towars the mean, in the comparison of the height of fathers and sons, of the intelligence of husband and wives, or of the performance of individuals on consevutive examinations.” 班里一个女子学园友专门建议抗议说怎么啊！凭什么啊！她实际上只是想发挥一下团结的愤怒。但其实八卦在于Tversky的婆姨是哪个人，卡恩eman的老伴又是哪个人啊！作者也是明天首先次知道，一知半解啊：Tversky's wife is Barbara Tversky and 卡恩eman's wife is Anne Treisman. 不过小编尚未找到真正的槽点在何地，到底何人高哪个人矮啊？
To quote one of my favorite songs: "Have I done any good in the world today? Have I helped anyone in need? Have I cheered up the sad and made someone feel glad? If not, I have failed indeed. There are chances for work all around just now, Opportunities right in our way. Do not let them pass by, saying, "Sometime I'll try," But go and do something today."
《Thinking Fast and Slow》读后感：Thinking twice, carefully
Every choice has a ripple effect.
I haven't made any thought on how to "label" this book yet.Daniel Kahneman's book brings new explanation for human's behavior, and the motivation behind it. Just like whatJim Holt wrote on NYTimes, this is the real "Two Brains Running", since "System 1 is impulsive and intuitive; System 2 is capable of reasoning, and it is cautious, but at least for some people it is also lazy".
Living a Consciously Designed Life
It is a book related to psychology, economics, finance, philosophy, and most important, human behavior. This book reminds me that why the Department of Economics is just on the top floor of the Department of Psychology in CMU. Just like a hint, these two disciplines could bring some combination, and it does.
"The best way to predict your future is to create it." - Abraham Lincoln
Thinking Fast: Not Bad It varies, however, it works for someone. "Thinking fast" shouldn't be a mistake, or something else.
Pulling it all together, here's how it works:
ome people just "compute" fast, and for most of us,we often compute much more than we want or need. Dr. Kahnemancalls this excess computation "the mental shotgun". In a little while, the collegues may complain that "you are thinking too much". Dr. Kahneman argues that random processes produce many sequences that convince people that the process is not random after all.
You must believe YOU ARE IN CONTROL of what happens to you (i.e.,
internal locus of control)
You must believe in YOUR OWN ABILITY to make things happen (i.e., self-efficacy/confidence)
You must believe you, and only you, are RESPONSIBLE for the choices you make
You must have HOPE that what you seek will come about.
According to psychology's Hope Theory, hope reflects your perceptions regarding your capacity to:
o the coincidence is not like the incidence we haven't imagined before.“To the untrained eye,” Feller remarks, “randomness appears as regularity or tendency to cluster.”
clearly conceptualize goals
develop the specific strategies to reach those goals (i.e., pathways thinking)
initiate and sustain the motivation for using those strategies (i.e., agency thinking).
From a spiritual perspective, hope is far more than wishful thinking. It's a sense of confidence, even assurance, that what you seek is a foregone conclusion - what Tony Robbins calls, "Resolve."
It's not a shame for people who think really fast, and "predict" things like wizard.
"Resolve means it's done," said Robbins. "It's done inside your heart, therefore it's done in the real world." Hence, Ralph Waldo Emerson famously said, "Once you make a decision, the universe conspires to make it happen."